每日更新 - 中国的主张与利他 The Daily Update - China give and take

联合国(UN)仲裁庭于7月12日就中国南海主权主张的裁决,无助于解决因这条资源丰富而繁忙的贸易路线产生的各种国际争端。如今,中国已经发表题为“中国坚持就南海的有关纠纷和菲律宾进行谈判解决的立场”的声明,反驳其裁决并进行了详细辩护。

继中国缺席诉讼,并拒绝承认整个事件过程,预计中国会保持其一贯的“我们不听取意见”的做法。今天的报纸重申了中国先前已经同意与菲律宾磋商解决争议,而不咨询“第三方”,并认为其南海主权由来已久,先于任何国家-指“南海九段线”历史地图。但根据联合国海洋法公约(UNCLOS),“能够产生专属经济区”是任何土地主权主张成立的必要条件,这就是为什么中国的主张被裁无效。

但裁决归裁决,也许中国缺席最引人注目的是其并不打算回应,更没有采取任何明确的积极措施。相反,此时中国这一闯入者仍在继续填海造陆,并在已经被明确列为菲律宾专属经济区(EEZ)的海域进行海军军事活动。这整出闹剧提醒我们,全球政治和经济影响力正在转移到东方,而西方已非昔日仲裁的唯一主宰者;若双方各执一词,不进行谈判,恐怕整个事件无法取得任何实质性进展。

中国指出,美国至今仍不认可联合国海洋法公约,因而没有权利执行公约的有关决定;中国也进一步指出,美国在遵守国际裁决一事上也是不堪回首(例如1984年美国政府与尼加拉瓜之间的裁决,前者直接从国际法院撤回)。但美国一直以来都坚持行使其航行自由权,派军舰巡航争议水域。相比之下,欧盟(采取其一贯的做法)在整个纠纷中仅是确认裁决,并未采取任何实际行动,。总体而言,欧洲仍然更热衷于和中国及该地区建立经济联系;一方面指望盟友美国来平衡地区势力,另一方面又对中国“南中国海的和平与稳定应该由中国和东盟各成员国共同维持”的主张抱有信心。中国显然已经认识到,自己对世界经济而言是一块大肥肉,绝不会再妄自菲薄,自视为二流国家。

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