每日新闻更新 - 小型核反应堆(SMR)The Daily Update - Small Modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR)

今年4月21日,英国国家电网宣布英国有史以来首次全天24小时的电力供应不是通过燃煤获得。随着可再生能源和大型核电站满足了英国更多的能源需求,英国政府和科学家正在寻找新的方式来生产电力,这就是小型核反应堆,也叫SMR。

SMR不是新事物,多年来潜艇和战舰一直使用这种小型反应堆做驱动。1954年世界首个核子动力潜艇USS Nautilus(鹦鹉螺号)就采用了SMR。数十年来,劳斯莱斯一直为英国皇家海军供应SMR。然而,现在计划在可利用现有国家电网的英国能源热点使用SMR。

SMR是指能生产300兆瓦电力的反应堆,产电量大约是传统大型核电站产电量的10%。劳斯莱斯认为该公司生产SMR的成本约为12.5亿英镑,比Hinkley Point C在萨默赛特郡的成本低7%。SMR的巨大优势在于它的规模,另外它完全可以通过工厂生产,这意味着可在较小的空间内生产和放置,一旦安装成功,所需的人工操作非常少。同大型核电站相比,SMR只需要很少的核材料,因此一旦到了使用期限,可以很方便地更换新模型,产生的放射性废弃物也非常少。这非常有吸引力,尤其考虑到一些行业专家认为Hinkley Point C的总成本(加上融资成本)超过800亿英镑。

UK PLC希望自己可以成为SMR领域的全球领导者。然而,竞争非常激烈。目前全球有9个国家正在开发SMR(甚至阿根廷也在进行研发),在标准方面也有很多问题。正如世界核协会所言:“SMR的设计认证、建造和运营许可成本不一定低于大型反应堆,这对开发商和支持者带来了巨大的负担。”

然而,业界、企业家、学者和投资者似乎并没有因此动摇。大量小型项目以及像劳斯莱斯这样的巨头正在形成联盟,正像他们在网站上说的:“英国工业拥有了千载难逢的机会为未来数十年提供安全可靠又经济的能源。”一份题为《UK SMR: A National Endeavour》(英国SMR:一项国家行动)的研究敦促各部长支持英国电厂的发展,这将产生40000个技术性工作岗位,为经济共吸纳1000亿英镑,开启价值约4000亿英镑的全球出口市场。

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