每日更新 - 国际能源署/特朗普/清洁能源计划 The Daily Update - International Energy Agency (IEA) / Trump / Clean Power Plan

国际能源署(IEA)的一份报告显示,2016年全球经济增长3.1%,但全球能源产业碳排放刚过320万亿吨,与前两年的数字持平。虽然现在还不能太早下结论,但研究人员表示,可再生能源领域出现了振奋人心的发展迹象,同时也产生了由煤炭向天然气的结构转变。最大的惊喜发生在美国:二氧化碳排放量下降了3%,这意味着美国实现了自1992年以来最低的碳排放,而经济增长却超过80%。正如IEA执行秘书长Dr Fatih Birol所言,“三年的排放量在全球经济保持增长的背景下实现了稳定持平,这显示了一个新趋势,当然是我们乐观的原因所在,而即使现在说全球碳排放已达到峰值还为时尚早,它们也说明了市场动态和科技进步的重要性。这在美国尤其如此,供应充足的页岩气已成为一种廉价的能源。”

2016年美国和中国引领“太阳能热潮”,大量安装太阳能光伏发电设备。两个国家在2016年安装太阳能板的数量都达到2015年的两倍。太阳能行业在全球呈爆炸式发展,到2016年底全世界有305千兆瓦(GW)的太阳能发电量,2010年是50GW,而在本世纪初几乎为零。在欧洲,英国处于领先地位,太阳能发电量增加了29%,然后是德国和法国,分别增加了21%和8%。

当然,能源结构向可再生能源转变发生在唐纳德·特朗普当选总统之前。在竞选期间,他承诺撤销巴拉克·奥巴马总统制定的可再生能源政策,上周他兑现了这个承诺。特朗普表示要撤销多项政策措施,结束“对煤炭的战争”,不但要提振国内煤炭行业,还要提高石油和天然气的产量。特朗普在名副其实的国家环保署总部签署该行政令时说,“就是这样:把我们的工作带回来,把我们的梦想带回来,让美国再次富裕起来。”

虽然特朗普(实际上是共和党)指责奥巴马的环境政策导致煤炭行业丢失了大量的工作岗位,但来自政府的官方数据显示,数十年来在两党各任总统任职期间,煤炭行业一直在丧失工作岗位。一月份能源部发布的分析文件显示,现在美国的煤炭行业提供的工作岗位不足75,000个,而可再生能源、太阳能、风能和生物能源则提供了超过650,000个岗位。

加州州长杰瑞·布朗对特朗普的做法进行了很犀利的评价:“撤销清洁能源计划是一个巨大的错误,本身就是反科学的。消除气候变化可能发生在唐纳德·特朗普的头脑中,但没有出现在其他任何地方。”加州、纽约州和很多其他州都表示将反对特朗普及其政府提出的任何撤销清洁能源计划的政策。加州法律已经规定,到2030年加利福尼亚所用电力的50%必须来自可再生能源。的确,该州依靠煤炭能源的最后几个城市之一洛杉矶,计划到2025年停止从加州煤场之外的地方进口能源。

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