每日新闻更新 - 拒绝棕榈油! The Daily Update - "Say No to Palm Oil"

“拒绝棕榈油!”这是一则呼吁善待地球的常见宣言。根据游说者的观点,由于越来越多的棕榈油用于大量日常食品(超过棕榈油总产量的70%)、燃料、消费品和使用棕榈油的化妆品中,导致气候变化、全球森林、土著部落、动物和植物都将面临威胁。更令环保人士担忧的是,过去12年棕榈油的需求已经翻倍,预期还将继续保持强劲。早在2005年棕榈油的产量就超过了大豆油,当时全球金融危机前的强劲增长推动了棕榈油在全球的需求,从此之后两者的产量差距不断扩大。从反面来看,棕榈油产量为数百万人提供了就业岗位,帮助棕榈油生产国减少了贫困。

全球约86%的棕榈油产自印度尼西亚和马来西亚,目前净进口国巴西也想加入“派对”。棕榈油行业的惊人发展已经导致印尼和马来西亚失去大片森林,焚烧森林为种植高收益的棕榈树腾挪土地。印尼的状况最严重,2008年被列入全球毁林速度最快的吉尼斯纪录,去年又刚刚一度超过美国成为全球最大的温室气体排放国。棕榈油绝非印尼最大的出口产品,最近的经济数据显示棕榈油约占印尼出口总额8%。然而,印尼的棕榈油出口却占全球棕榈油总出口额的46%之巨。另外,尽管去年出现了厄尔尼诺现象,但印尼四月份的初级棕榈油出口额同比增长60.6%。

同其他商品一样,棕榈油在上半年遭遇低谷,六月份的低迷特别令人不解,因为往常斋月期间是棕榈油需求量最大的时期。尽管本月棕榈油价格回弹了6.50%,但仍保持低迷,预期到年底棕榈油产出的同比增长率将提高。2015年遭受厄尔尼诺现象后,棕榈有的产量遭受很大的打击,而随着替代用油菜籽油的产量增加,似乎对棕榈油的需求将下降。大豆油、棉花籽油、玉米油和葵花油的产量预计将保持高速增长趋势,从而降低棕榈油的需求,其中大豆油将尤其缓解对棕榈油的需求。由于大豆油是棕榈油的首选替代品,巴西一些国家的大豆油产量迅速提高。

那么,抑制棕榈油环境足迹的解决方案有哪些。真的有一个直接的答案吗?用大豆油替代高收益的棕榈油,只会再导致相似的环境后果。但如果消费者只购买可持续产品呢?早棕榈油永续发展圆桌组织(RSPO)成立于2004年,并旨在“帮助减少棕榈油种植对环境和社区产生的影响”。但目前全球只有17%的棕榈油供应获得可持续认证。这并不是跟环境保护狂、国际绿色和平组织和世界自然基金会那样反对使用棕榈油。上周,法国新任环境部长Nicolas Hulot声称,法国计划到2040年禁止进口棕榈油和非可持续种植的大豆油。这起源于法国自2012年提出的系列议案,要求对种植过程中造成环境危害的产品征收特别税。这些议案遭到印尼和马来西亚的大力拒绝,并声称这是歧视,且违反了国际法规。但是,如果一部分利润用于教育培训,并认证更多种植,像法国这样的国家就不会再有“进口毁林”的压力。

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