每日新闻更新 — 中国40年的改革 The Daily Update - 40 years of China’s reforms

 

明天人们将会看到中国国家主席习近平发表演讲,纪念中国改革开放40周年。由于中国近期的发展以及外部压力(特别是特朗普政府所施加的),这一讲话正引起人们的热切期待。这两种不利因素都可能迫使习近平改变未来宏观政策改革的实质和方向。虽然习近平将纪念邓小平领导的改革开放的前40年,以及他的开启中国对国际社会和外国投资的开放的著名讲话 —“解放思想,实事求是,团结一致,面向未来”,但是,人们普遍认为他将尝试跟以前的政策来一个干净的历史分割。从宏观上看,习近平的讲话有望强调国有企业、私营企业和外国企业的平等地位,甚至可以说是“中立竞争”。

在过去40年的漫漫长路中,中国近90%的人口每天的生活费还不足2.70美元,这一数字去年下降到人口的约6%。但是,不得不说的是,中国的贫富之间的差异是巨大的。根据北京大学的一份报告,最富有的1%的家庭拥有该国近35%的财富,而最贫穷的25%的家庭只拥有该国总财富的1%。在一个广泛使用的衡量国家不平等程度的指标中,基尼指数(一种用于表示不平等程度分布的统计指标)2016年将中国的得分数字定为46.5(价值越接近100,不平等程度就越大)。这个数字从2008年的49以上下降了一些,但仍然居高不下。作为参考,美国的数字为41,英国的为33,欧盟的仅为30。

正如我们在世界其他许多地方所看到的那样,贫富不均是一个日益严重的问题,中国政府需要解决这个问题,特别是当你有超过10亿的人口获得的教育一年比一年好但又享受不到民主的时候。

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