每日新闻更新 — 普京软化对养老金制度实施改革的态度 The Daily Update – Putin a Dampener on Pension Reform

在养老金改革方案之中您最喜欢哪一个方案?俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京在回答关于该问题的提问时的答复是,“都不是”;如果您要问“为什么?那是因为[提高退休年龄]不能取悦绝大多数的公民”。事实上,(这些方案)已被证明非常不得人心。对于在6月中旬被宣布的对养老金制度的改革的提议,公众通过数万人的抗议活动表示了强烈的抗议。这些改革包括分别将男性和女性的领取养老金的年龄从60/55提高到65/63。普京的民意调查处于多年来的最低点。在近期从80%以上急剧下降到现在“仅仅的”67%之后,一些指标显示,他的支持率位于四年来的最低水平。

昨天,为了应对这种不满,普京缓和了他的立场,表明他的政府向议会提出的建议不是“最终决定”,并主张以“谨慎而平衡”的方式进行养老金制度的改革,而这种改革方式应当是“公平的,并考虑到公民的利益”。但同时他也警告说,假如不采取任何措施,将来的“养老金制度将会崩溃,或者我们为[养老金]的赤字所获得资金的预算将会崩溃。”

所以今天,即使面对这种广泛的反对,普京也明确表示,(正如俄罗斯国家媒体所说的那样)“将养老金制度纳入现代化的轨道”已经被推迟了“好多年”,使得改革变得“不得已而为之”,原因是俄罗斯的劳动年龄人口在不断缩小。因此,普京支持将男女的退休年龄逐步推迟五年,相对于最初将女性退休年龄延长八年的提议相比,已经做了一些让步(俄罗斯妇女的平均寿命为77岁,比男性平均大11岁)。许多人认为这与提高增值税的建议一样,对于改善仍处于制裁压力之下的国家财政来讲是至关重要的。

作为国家领导人的普京在他18年的执政期间不止一次地表示,在他任职期间不会发生推迟领取养老金的年龄的事情。如果他被视为迎合议会或者经济状况,他的强人声誉将受到玷污;像阿列克谢·纳瓦尔尼(Alexei Navalny)这样的反对者,将继续因为这些薄弱环节蜂拥而至,计划在9月9日举行更多的国家范围内的抗议活动。对于政治意愿和公共舆论来说,经济现实的局限性总是危险的。

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