每日新闻更新 — 美国考虑对贬低自己货币的国家征收关税 The Daily Update – US considers tariffs on undervalued currencies

有些国家为了在出口时占到美国的便宜就让自己的货币贬值,据说美国政府正在考虑对来自这些国家的商品征收关税。其实,国家操纵货币已经不是什么新鲜主意,特朗普一直以迂回的方式指责中国在做这样的事情,然而,特朗普政府一直在琢磨怎样来对这种做法采取更为强硬的对策。美国商务部表示,其拟议的规则变更将修改正常的反补贴关税程序,以便把新的货币贬值的标准写进去。

该提案将让总部设在美国的公司寻求对来自美国财政部认为是参与对自己货币进行竞争性贬值的那些国家的出口产品征收反补贴关税。

这个想法被认为是商务部长威尔伯·罗斯(Wilbur Ross)和白宫贸易顾问彼得·纳瓦罗(Peter Navarro)的杰作。自从唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)任总统不久,他们二人就一直在努力推动使用货币工具。当然,这并不是说多年来别人就不担心货币操纵的事情。早在2010年,现在的美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)就曾告诉过一个国会委员会:“我们应当对中国的货币操纵行为有所反制”,后来又说“美国政府应该把汇率操纵作为一种补贴来对待”。

除了中国之外,新规则可能因此危及其他一些国家的出口,包括德国、韩国、印度、瑞士和日本。这些国家都已经上了美国财政部的半年度汇率报告的“监督名单”。该报告对高额的双边贸易顺差、高额的全球经常账户盈余以及使用货币对市场进行干预等事宜进行追踪。

罗斯说:“这一变更会让外国出口商注意到,商务部可以抵制那些损害美国工业的货币补贴”,他后来又说,“外国将无法像过去那样使用货币政策来占美国工人和企业的便宜”。

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